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Intentional efforts by a number of organizations have created barriers to meaningful climate action. From lobbying to creating junk science websites, a panoply of coordinated activities have sown the seeds of doubt in the minds of many and effectively wasted decades. Social scientists have begun to study these efforts, who funded them and how they continue to block and delay action on climate change and steer research away from anything that might jeopardize the hegemony of the fossil fuel industry. 



Geoffrey Supran and Algorithmic Transparency Institute, September 2022 Three Shades of Greenwashing

Global Registry of Fossil Fuels

Robert Brulle, April 2022 Advocating inaction: a historical analysis of the Global Climate Coalition

Divest Harvard, November 2021 Beyond the Endowment: Uncovering Fossil Fuel Interests on Campus 

Corporate Accountability, Global Forest Coalition & Friends of the Earth International, June 2021 The Big Con: How Big Polluters are advancing a net zero climate agenda to delay, deceive and deny

Influence Map - How the oil majors have spent $1Bn since Paris on narrative capture and lobbying on climate

Robert Brulle 2020:Denialism: organized opposition to climate change action in the United States

Robert Brulle 2013: Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations

John Cook, Geoffrey Supran, Stephan Lewandowsky, Naomi Oreskes, Ed Maibach 2019: America Misled: How the fossil fuel industry deliberately misled Americans about climate change

Ben Franta 2021: Early oil industry disinformation on global warming

Barnard University 2018 Fossil Fuel Divestment and Climate Action Methodology

Oxford Martin Principles for Climate Conscious Investment 2018

Ben Franta 2020: The Pernicious Influence of Big Oil on America’s Universities

Ben Franta 2018: Early oil industry knowledge of CO2 and global warming

Naomi Oreskes & Erik M. Conway 2010: Merchants of Doubt

Geoffrey Supran & Naomi Oreskes 2017: Assessing ExxonMobil's climate change communications (1977–2014)

Center for American Progress, Jennifer Washburn 2010: Big Oil Goes to College

Center for Science in the Public Interest 2008 Big Oil U 

ExxonMobil 2019 Worldwide Giving Report  pages 9 -15, pages 19-22, pages 24-27

Climate Investigations Center

Climate Social Science Network

Institute at Brown for Environment and Society

Scholars at Brown for Climate Action Advancing Brown's Response to the Climate Crisis

Yale Program on Climate Change Communication

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